The Future Perfect Tense (#1), by Dennis Oliver
|The Future Perfect Tense (#1) |
The English future perfect tense can be understood as a combination of future time and the present perfect tense:
it shows an action or event that started in the past, is starting or will start in the future and that will also be completed
at some future time.The form of the future perfect tense has these parts:will + have + the past participle
(third form of the verb)Examples:will have finished something will have lived here will have known each other will have left
will have owned something will have been
The future perfect tense is used as was outlined above:
the action or event started before now, is starting now, or will start after now, but it will not be completed until some point in the future.
Examples:In December, 2001 Dave’s ESL Cafe will have been online for six years.
(It hasn’t yet been online for six years.)I hope that I will have finished this Hint by 9:30 PM. (It isn’t finished yet).At 2:30 tomorrow afternoon, I will have finished my third class. (My classes won’t begin until tomorrow morning and they won’t finish until
tomorrow at 2:30 PM.)
In about five minutes, I will have thought of at least five example sentences. (I’m thinking of example sentences now, but
I still don’t have five of them.)In June, 2001, my niece will have been married for two years. (She got married in June, 1999. Her two-year anniversary won’t be until June, 2001.)It’s 8:45 PM now. By 9:30 PM, I hope that I will have sent this .
(I haven’t sent it yet.)________________________________________________
Special Notes:1. The form of the future perfect combines the forms of the future with will and the present perfect:will
(or any modal verb) + simple formhave / has + past participle will+simple form ( = have) +past participle
Because the first part of a future perfect verb is a one-word modal auxiliary, the second part is the simple (base) form of have: S-forms,past forms, and -ing forms cannot be used. Because the last two parts are like the present perfect in form, the third part is always the past participle.
2. The main verb (the past participle) shows the end point of the action or event. In the first example sentence above, “be online for six years” will finish in December, 2001. In the last example sentence above, I hope that “send thisHint” will be finished at 9:30 PM.
_____________________________Next: another use of the future perfect tense
The Future Perfect Tense (#2)
The English future perfect tense shows a combination of future time and the present perfect tense: an action or event
that started in the past, is starting now, or will start in the future and will be completed at some future time. Sentences in future perfect tense can be negative as well as affirmative. The negative form is will + not + have + the past participle
(third form of the verb) The combination will + not is often contracted to won’t.
will not (won’t) have finished something
will not (won’t) have gone somewhere
will not (won’t) have seen someone
will not (won’t) have done something
will not (won’t) have had something
will not (won’t) have taken place
The meaning of the negative forms is partly the same as the affirmative forms: the action or event started before now, is starting now, or will start after now; the difference is that the verb after “have” will not be finished.
We’re running behind schedule We will not (won’t) have finished the work by the deadline. (At the deadline the work still won’t be finished.) Bob left work at 5:00 and his house is about 30 miles from his office. He will not (won’t) have arrived home until after 5:30.
Eun-Mi just started graduate school. She will not (won’t) have completed work for her Master’sdegree for at least one more year.
We don’t have to wait for Julio. He will not (won’t) have finished his test for at least another hour. We’ll have dinner later than usual tonight. I put the roast into the oven only 30 minutes ago, so at our normal dinner time it will not (won’t) have finished cooking.
If you call Judy at 6:00 AM, she won’t be in a good mood because she will not (won’t) have had her coffee yet.